PART 1 - The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed. by by Margaret M. Burnett and Christopher Scaffidi
PART 2 - NASA Aeronautics and Aerospace Evolution: Availability of NASA Software for End User Development
The 21st Century is going to be a whirlwind. Dedicated professionals in the fields of engineering at their highest levels investing in the art of imparting the knowledge from decades of invaluable work.
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Experience a precise, concise, deliberate and virtual Encyclopedia that is directly relevant to the End User Development products here at Civilstock.
Please visit The Interaction Foundation Design website and experience the complete Encyclopedia. It will become a permanent resource for Civilstock so Australians can have valuable connections to the latest technology.
Free textbooks written by 100+ leading designers, bestselling authors, and Ivy League professors.
The textbooks are assembled in a gigantic 4000+ page encyclopedia covering the design of interactive products and services such as websites, household objects, smartphones, computer software, aircraft cockpits, you name it.
10.1 The Birth of EUD
Prior to the 1980's, most computing occurred on mainframes controlled by professional developers in information systems departments. End users had little influence over the form and function of software running on a mainframe, which they generally viewed through simple terminal windows and controlled with simple textual commands. Information systems departments rarely had enough staff time to design and implement all of the software enhancements requested by users (Brancheau and Wetherbe 1987).
EUD grew out of a confluence of innovations embodied in the machines known as "microcomputers" (a term eventually replaced with "personal computer"). First, these machines were inexpensive enough that organizations could afford to provide each user with a machine. Having their own machines made it viable for users to modify ("tailor") the machine's software settings without impacting the computing environment of other users. Second, microcomputers had sufficient hardware power so that users could compile (or interpret) new code in languages such as Basic. This in turn provided infrastructure for end users to create new applications. Third, microcomputers soon came to include innovative new features such as the mouse and powerful graphics cards, which accelerated usability advances such as graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and direct manipulation; these advances, in turn, opened up the possibility of novel programming tools specifically designed to meet the needs of users.
Spreadsheets were the first major EUD programming environment made possible by these innovations (Bricklin et al 1979), beginning with VisiCalc, then continuing with Lotus 1-2-3 and Excel. Although users of spreadsheet systems may not think of themselves as "doing programming," spreadsheet systems are programming environments because their formulas are first-order functional programs (Jones et al 2003). In such programs, the formulas can refer to input "variables" (cell names) and the results of the formulas are computed output values. The availability of spreadsheet software was a major factor in spurring early demand for microcomputers (Ichbiah 1993). Newer technologies such as the web and mobile computing have since opened up increasingly diverse and powerful opportunities for end users to create and tailor software.
10.3 End-user programming (EUP)
End-user programming (EUP) is defined as "programming to achieve the result of a program, rather than the program itself" (Ko et al 2011). In EUP, the developer's goal is to actually use the program; this contrasts with professional programming, where the goal is to create a program for other people to use, often in exchange for monetary compensation. The programs created through EUP can be extensions of existing applications (as in Figure 6, above), or they can be new applications that run separately from existing applications. End users can perform EUP through a wide range of interaction styles (Nardi 1993).
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed. by by Margaret M. Burnett and Christopher Scaffidi - Ch10. https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/book/the-encyclopedia-of-human-computer-interaction-2nd-ed/end-user-development
March 2, 2017
NASA Releases Software Catalog, Granting the Public Free Access to Technologies for Earthly Applications - https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-releases-software-catalog-granting-the-public-free-access-to-technologies-for
“The software catalog is our way of supporting the innovation economy by granting access to tools used by today’s top aerospace professionals to entrepreneurs, small businesses, academia and industry,” said Steve Jurczyk, associate administrator for NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) in Washington. “Access to these software codes has the potential to generate tangible benefits that create American jobs, earn revenue and save lives.”
For a searchable PDF of the software catalog, please visit: http://software.nasa.gov
To learn more about NASA’s Technology Transfer program, visit: http://technology.nasa.gov
SPACE & UNIVERSE (Official) - NASA Live - Earth From Space (HDVR) ♥ ISS LIVE FEED
Published on 27 Jan 2017
The great space visionary Krafft A. Ehricke gave this comprehensive presentation on the industrialization and settlement of the Moon at the "Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century" conference, held Oct. 29-31, 1984, at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Krafft Ehricke worked at Peenemünde as a propulsion engineer from 1942 to 1945 with Walter Thiel, then went to the United States with other German rocket scientists and technicians under "Operation Paperclip" in 1947. He worked for a short time with the Von Braun Rocket Team at Huntsville.
In 1948, while working for the U.S. Army, Ehricke wrote a story about a manned mission to Mars called "Expedition Ares". It anticipated the many challenges that still face explorers who will make the journey in the future. In the same year he wrote a book with Wernher von Braun, The Mars Project, which detailed how man could travel to Mars using a ferry system.
Upon leaving government service Ehricke worked at Bell Aircraft, and then for Convair in 1952. While at Convair, he designed the D-1 Centaur, the world's first upper-stage-booster that used liquid hydrogen and oxygen. He also created an early space station design, based on launch by Convair's Atlas rocket. The NEXUS reusable rocket was a 1960s concept design by a group at General Dynamics led by Krafft Ehricke. Also, during his stay at General Dynamics, he participated on Project Orion (nuclear propulsion).
Krafft Ehricke undertook a major, multi-decade study of the industrial development of the Moon, which he described as Earth's "seventh continent." His lunar industrialization concept was based on the most advanced technologies, such as nuclear-powered freight transporters, and using fusion energy to power his city, Selenopolis, on the Moon.
Ehricke received a space burial on April 21, 1997, when a rocket sent a small amount of his cremated remains into Earth orbit.